24 April 2018

An alternative to antibiotics - weakening superbugs' grip

alternative to antibiotics weakening superbugs grip


An illustration showing the beginning of a bacterial infection. At the bottom, human proteins coat the surface of a medical implant. The colorful rods are bacteria initiating the infection. The transparent structure below the center bacteria is the protein that anchors bacteria to the implant surface. (Image: NIH Center for Macromolecular Modeling and Bioinformatics)

There is a growing medical emergency in our society caused by the constant growth in the number of people affected by untreatable bacterial infections. The discovery of antibiotics in the early 20th century gave us decades of relative safety, a period that is coming to an end the antibiotics that saved millions of lives in the last century are increasingly powerless against a growing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), more than 23,000 Americans die each year from infections caused by germs resistant to antibiotics. While this number in itself is alarming, the scary thing is that unusually resistant germs bacteria that are resistant to all or most antibiotics tested and are uncommon or carry special resistance genes are constantly developing and spreading. The scientists at the CDC, who are not prone to panic easily, call this type of bug nightmare bacteria. Lab tests in the U.S. uncovered unusual resistance more than 200 times in 2017 in these nightmare bacteria alone.

This problem is not new. Already in 2012, the then Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO), Dr Margaret Chan, has warned vividly that the growing threat of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains may pose grave risks for society: "A post-antibiotic era means, in effect, an end to modern medicine as we know it. Things as common as strep throat or a child's scratched knee could once again kill."

Chan pointed out that there is a global crisis in antibiotics caused by rapidly evolving resistance among microbes responsible for common infections that threaten to turn them into untreatable diseases. Every antibiotic ever developed was at risk of becoming useless.

A work recently published in Science ("Molecular mechanism of extreme mechanostability in a pathogen adhesin") may offer some hope. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and GPU-accelerated supercomputer simulations, researchers discovered why staph bacteria the leading cause of healthcare-related infections can be so tough to beat.

This work could point the way to new treatments for now-invincible bacterial foes, not by developing a new antibiotic that would kill these bacteria, but by making them weaker so that they get more easily attacked by our immune system.

Staph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria, types of germs commonly found on the skin of healthy individuals. Most of the time, these bacteria cause no problems or result in relatively minor skin infections.

The research team showed that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) adhere to their hosts us humans with exceptional mechanical resilience. That's what makes pathogenic bacteria so persistent.

"Understanding the physical mechanisms that underlie this persistent stickiness at the molecular level is instrumental to combat these invaders," Rafael Bernardi, a research scientist in the Theoretical and Computational Biophysics group at the Beckman Institute, tells Nanowerk.

Combining experimental and sophisticated computer simulations, Bernardi and the late Klaus Schulten from the Beckman Institute teamed up with Lukas Milles and Hermann Gaub from the Physics Department at Ludwig-Maximilian-University Munich to decipher the mechanism responsible for staph adhesion.

Using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), the University of Munich team was able to measure the forces that govern the interaction between an individual adhesin (a staph protein) and its human target molecule. Independently, the Illinois team investigated the same protein complex by performing computationally-intensive steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, carried out using the NCSA’s Blue Waters supercomputer, deconstructing the mechanism of the interaction between staph adhesion factors and human proteins.

The scientists were surprised by the shear forces that were necessary to rupture the interaction between the bacterial and human proteins: they are much stronger than any other non-covalent interaction known. They discovered that the mechanism that makes staph bacteria cling so tightly to its human host is a series of hydrogen bonds arranged in a corkscrew shape that works like superglue to clamp bacteria protein molecules to human ones.

"It’s easy to break one hydrogen bond," says Bernardi. "What makes this attachment so strong is that you have to break all the bonds at once in order to detach the protein molecules."

"The unbinding force of a single adhesin-human protein complex measured was exceptional, about an order of magnitude stronger than any other protein-protein interaction known," he continues. "The rupture forces reached over two nanonewtons, a regime generally associated with the strength of covalent bonds, and nearly an order of magnitude stronger than most other protein-protein interactions known."


A summary of the molecular mechanism responsible for extreme mechanostability in the complex between bacterial adhesion proteins and human fibronectin proteins. (Video produced by Rafael Bernardi (University of Illinois), based on simulations results taking advantage of GPU-accelerated software NAMD and VMD)

The combination of innovative simulation methods and experimental confirmations showed that the extreme physical strength of the staph adhesion is largely independent of protein sequence and biochemical properties, but rather a built-in physical property an invasive advantage for these staphylococci.

The whole description of this unexpected mechanism is new and shows how bacteria evolved to take advantage of simple hydrogen-bonds in an remarkable way. These findings expand our understanding of why pathogen adhesion is so resilient and may open new ways to inhibit staphylococcal invasion.

Understanding the mechanism of staph infection at the molecular and now atomic level may open new avenues for an intelligent design of antimicrobial therapies. The development of anti-adhesion therapy could promote the detachment of staph bacteria, facilitating bacterial clearance by our own immune system.

"The main challenge now is to design a drug that targets this bacterial adhesion mechanism and either blocks or at least weakens it," Bernardi concludes. "As a more general aspect, the combined use of AFM experiments and SMD simulations should greatly contribute to the identification of new binding mechanisms in bacterial adhesins, thus helping to show how they regulate biofilm formation. In diagnosis and therapy, this combined approach could represent a powerful platform for the treatment of microbial infections"

Source: nanowerk

29 December 2017

DARPA, University of Michigan Team Up to Build ‘Unhackable’ Chip

unhackable chip

DARPA has announced a $3.6 million grant to a University of Michigan team with the goal of building an “unhackable” processor. Software-based security has proven incapable of meeting this goal, and while hardware models like Intel’s IME or ARM’s TrustZone have had better luck overall, these systems can be affected by major bugs themselves and don’t protect the entire contents of the microprocessor.

Todd Austin, leader of the Morpheus project at UM, likens his team’s design to a giant Rubik’s Cube. His architecture focuses on moving data stored within the chip to various randomized locations while also constantly re-encrypting stored passwords. Even if a hacker managed to find a memory block with a password in it that was vulnerable to decryption, the data won’t be there by the time the password-cracker finishes its work. Even modern GPUs, which are staggeringly good at password decryption, require time to work.

“We are making the computer an unsolvable puzzle,” Austin said. “It’s like if you’re solving a Rubik’s Cube and every time you blink, I rearrange it. What’s incredibly exciting about the project is that it will fix tomorrow’s vulnerabilities. I’ve never known any security system that could be future proof.”
future unhackable chip

Rowhammer targets either the single purple row to flip the yellow bits or can target both yellow rows to flip the purple bits.

What the Michigan team is describing would be an incredibly useful set of capabilities if it can be made to work. We’ve seen exploits before, like Rowhammer, that function precisely by targeting a given area of memory and hammering adjacent rows with repeated accesses in an attempt to flip bits within the target row (hence the name). Zero-day exploits are a common and potentially devastating problem. And frankly, it’s simply downright tiresome to be forever chasing down security bulletins and updating various applications. A chip that could juggle its memory addresses and keep data safely encrypted could be useful in a wide range of security applications.

What’s less clear is how easily the technology could be integrated into modern processors or what impact these rapid-fire data shifts would have on functionality. The DARPA SSITH project (System Security Integrated Through Hardware and Firmware) specifically states that “The strategic challenge for participants in the SSITH program will be to develop new integrated circuit (IC) architectures that lack the current software-accessible points of illicit entry, yet retain the computational functions and high-performance the ICs were designed to deliver.”

DARPA’s goal is to fund initial development on a processor design capable of preventing one or more of seven security flaws: Permission and privilege escalations, buffer errors, resource management, information leakage, numeric errors, crypto errors, and code injection. These seven types of attacks supposedly comprise a whopping 40 percent of all attack types; cutting even one or two of them out could significantly reduce security issues in the military and consumer world.

Source

21 December 2017

Laser-Delivered Internet Could be a Game Changer for Millions of Indian Citizens.

Laser Delivered Internet

In Brief

Across India, there are large gaps in broadband internet access. A new effort by a telecom company and X, a subsidiary of Alphabet, will hopefully deliver internet to millions more using lasers.


Laser Internet

In Andhra Pradesh, a southeast state in India, a subsidiary of Alphabet called simply “X” might soon be delivering the internet with lasers. According to the company, they aim to provide “fiber optic cable, but without the cable.” The technology that makes this all happen is called free space optical communications (FSOC) technology.

To accomplish this ambitious task, X will work with AP State FiberNet, a telecom company owned entirely by the Andhra Pradesh government. X will create two thousand FSOC links, which use beams of laser light instead of traditional cables to deliver the internet over long distances. While it may seem dicey, this method is capable of being equally reliable and potentially superior to cabled delivery.


Laser Internet
(Image Credit: fancycrave1/Pixabay)

Baris Erkman, FSOC lead at X, stated in a Medium post that “because there’s no cable, this means there’s none of the time, cost, and hassle involved in digging trenches or stringing cable along poles. FSOC boxes can simply be placed kilometers apart on roofs or towers, with the signal beamed directly between the boxes to easily traverse common obstacles like rivers, roads and railways.”

 

A Changing Internet

Andhra Pradesh is currently home to Hyderabad, one of India’s most influential tech cities. Within the state there is some of the cheapest broadband access that exists globally; however, there are still many areas throughout India that are without regular internet access, and an estimated 900 million people are still without regular broadband access. As the UN now classifies internet access as a human right, many are working to increase access. This need will only grow as, in 2024, Hyderabad will no longer be a part of Andhra Pradesh due to the creation of a new state, which will lower connectivity and access.

The state hopes that, with the introduction of laser delivery technology and the adoption of cable-less internet, 12 million households and thousands of government organizations and businesses will have broadband internet by 2019.

This development signals two things. First, it shows how states and governments are taking more serious actions to increase broadband access around the world. Secondly, it shows how rapidly internet delivery technology is evolving. Fiber optic cables might have seemed like an ideal method a few years ago, but laser internet could be the next standard of access.

Source

20 December 2017

Electric eels provide a zap of inspiration for a new kind of power source.

Electric eels hydrogel disks

Battery-like devices mimic how a charge builds up in the animal’s cells.

IT’S ELECTRIC  A new type of energy source made with hydrogel disks (shown) works a lot like the power-producing organs inside electric eels.

New power sources bear a shocking resemblance to the electricity-making organs inside electric eels.

These artificial electric eel organs are made up of water-based polymer mixes called hydrogels. Such soft, flexible battery-like devices, described online October 13 in Nature, could power soft robots or next-gen wearable and implantable tech.

“It’s a very smart approach” to building potentially biocompatible, environmentally friendly energy sources and “has a bright future for commercialization,” says Jian Xu, an engineer at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge not involved in the work.

This new type of power source is modeled after rows of cells called electrocytes in the electric organ that runs along an electric eel’s body. When an eel zaps its prey, positively charged potassium and sodium atoms inside and between these cells flow toward the eel’s head, making each electrocyte’s front end positive and tail end negative. This setup creates a voltage of about 150 millivolts across each cell. The voltages of these electrocytes add up, like a lineup of AAA batteries powering a flashlight, explains Michael Mayer, a biophysicist at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland. Collectively, an eel’s electrocytes can generate hundreds of volts.

artificial eel cell chain of four hydrogelsGEL CELLS Each artificial eel cell is a chain of four hydrogels, from one red gel to another, sandwiched between panes of polyester and connected to other cells.

Mayer and his colleagues concocted four hydrogels that, when queued up in a particular order, mimic the function of an electrocyte. The researchers devised a couple of strategies for stringing a four-gel artificial cell to other cells. One technique involved printing hydrogel grids onto two polyester sheets, and then laying one sheet on top of the other so the hydrogels crisscrossed like zipper teeth. Alternatively, printing all the hydrogels on a single sheet and then folding the sheet stacked the gels like pancakes.

The researchers designed the four hydrogels’ chemical makeup so that as soon as all the gels of a single cell touched, their positively charged sodium atoms surged toward one end of the lineup and negative chloride atoms flooded toward the other. Much like a real electrocyte, each four-gel artificial cell generated 130 to 185 millivolts of electricity, and 612 artificial eel cells in tandem produced 110 volts about the energy of a household outlet.

polyester sheet hydrogels

TAKING CHARGE A polyester sheet with hydrogels printed in a precise configuration folds up so that the hydrogels stack similar to the cells in an electric eel’s electricity-generating organ.

Unfortunately, the artificial eel organs don’t expend their energy as efficiently as their biological counterparts, Mayer says. So the hydrogel systems built for this study could only energize very low-power instruments. “The device we’re closest to powering is probably a pacemaker,” Mayer says. But he thinks that tweaking the hydrogel setup to more closely imitate a real eel electric organ like by printing thinner gels could give these energy sources more oomph.

Mayer also wants to devise a new way to recharge the artificial organs. Researchers currently have to hook the devices up to an external power source that drives the hydrogels’ charged particles back to their starting positions, kind of like plugging a battery into a charging dock.

“The holy grail, at least to me, would be to design this thing so it can recharge itself inside the body,” Mayer says. He imagines artificial eel organs tapping into the energy stored by natural charge separations throughout the body, like between the stomach which is relatively positively charged and surrounding tissue. Such flexible, biofriendly and transparent energy sources could someday energize implanted health sensors, insulin pumps or high-tech contact lenses that project virtual displays onto the wearer’s line of sight.

T. Schroeder et al. An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels. Nature. Published online December 13, 2017. doi:10.1038/nature24670.

Source

New Superconducting Magnet Smashes World Record


Superconducting Magnet

In Brief

The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has created the world's most powerful superconducting magnet. Named 32 T, it's 33 percent more powerful than the previous record-holding magnet, and thousands of times stronger than refrigerator magnets.

 

Back On Top

The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (National MagLab) is no stranger to breaking records. In August, the team took back the title of “world’s strongest resistive magnet” after losing it in 2014 with their Project 11 magnet that reached 41.4 teslas, a unit of magnetic field strength. On December 8, they came back once again to set a new record: this time, for the world’s most powerful superconducting magnet.

Their new superconducting magnet, created in the MagLab Tallahassee facility, created a magnetic field of 32 teslas, making it nearly 33 percent stronger than the magnet that held the previous record (and giving it the nickname of “32T”). For reference, that’s 3000 times stronger than the magnets we put on our refrigerators. According to MagLab, the world record set last week represents one of the biggest improvements made in the last 40 years.



“This is a transformational step in magnet technology, a true revolution in the making,” said Greg Boebinger, MagLab Director, in a press release. “Not only will this state-of-the-art magnet design allow us to offer new experimental techniques here at the lab, but it will boost the power of other scientific tools such as X-rays and neutron scattering around the world.”

Advanced Physics

Superconductors are already vital to the operation of a range of different devices, from MRI machines to high-speed transportation systems, and nuclear fusion reactors to enormous particle colliders. This superconducting magnet is therefore expected to help advance research in several areas, including physics, chemistry, biology, and quantum matter. To help facilitate its use, MagLab is allowing scientists from around the world to apply for the opportunity to use it.

The team doesn’t intend to stop at 32 teslas, however. One day, the superconducting magnet may be as powerful as the lab’s record-breaking resistive magnet, though MagLab engineer Huub Weijers who oversaw the magnet’s construction foresees magnets going even further beyond that.

“We’ve opened up an enormous new realm,” said Weijers in the press release. “I don’t know what that limit is, but it’s beyond 100 teslas. The required materials exist. It’s just technology and dollars that are between us and 100 teslas.”

Source

16 December 2017

MIT scientists borrow from fireflies to make glowing plants


'Our work very seriously opens up the doorway to street lamps that are nothing but treated trees'

Scientists have created plants that glow using embedded nanoparticles in leaves, potentially paving the way for trees to replace streetlights.

Experts at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) hope their discovery could lead to traditional light sources being replaced with self-sustaining alternatives.

"The vision is to make a plant that will function as a desk lamp – a lamp that you don't have to plug in," said chemical engineer Professor Michael Strano, the senior author of the study.

"The light is ultimately powered by the energy metabolism of the plant itself."

To give the plants their glowing ability, Professor Strano and his colleagues used luciferase, the substance that gives fireflies their glow.

They created nanoparticles containing luciferase, as well as other, larger particles containing luciferin and coenzyme A, which combine with the luciferase to produce the desired effect.

After immersing the plants in a solution containing these particles and exposing them to high pressures, the scientists were able to produce plants that glowed for nearly four hours.


While the work is in its early stages, the team has lofty ambitions for how it could be applied in the future.

"Our target is to perform one treatment when the plant is a seedling or a mature plant, and have it last for the lifetime of the plant," said Professor Strano.

"Our work very seriously opens up the doorway to streetlamps that are nothing but treated trees, and to indirect lighting around homes."

The results of the research were published in the journal Nano Letters.

Other researchers have attempted to create glowing plants using genetic engineering.

These efforts resulted in limited success, and were restricted to a couple of species that are commonly used in genetic research.

The MIT team’s work, on the other hand, has already been tested on an array of salad leaves, including rocket, kale, spinach and watercress.

"Plants can self-repair, they have their own energy, and they are already adapted to the outdoor environment," said Professor Strano.

"We think this is an idea whose time has come.”

Source

14 December 2017

Researcher Claims New Battery Design Could Double Range, Battery Life



PR blasts about supposed innovation in battery design is a recent story about an MIT grad who founded a battery company is worth paying attention to. Qichao Hu is the CEO of SolidEnergy, a company that’s been working to improve lithium-ion energy density for the past five years.

The problem with lithium-ion is that whether you measure by energy per kilogram or energy per unit weight, Li-ion batteries aren’t very good. The graph below also illustrates why fossil fuels are so difficult to replace. It’s not just because they pack a relatively high amount of energy though they do but because fuels like ethanol, kerosene, gasoline, and diesel are stable at room temperature and pressure (even if you need to keep a lid on them) and don’t require specialized storage or pumping procedures. Lithium-ion batteries, meanwhile, are the tiny dot at the bottom-left side of the graph. Anything that can bump them upwards or outwards is therefore an improvement and Hu thinks he has the answer.
SolidEnergy’s technology works by substituting a thin lithium foil for the larger anode used in most lithium-ion batteries. This solves one problem, by shrinking the battery form factor by ~50 percent, but it creates others. As originally designed, the battery only worked above 80C, which makes it a non-starter for most commercial applications. Pang appears to have solved this problem by adding phosphorous and sulfur to the electrolyte, which forms a thin shield over the lithium metal electrode, protecting it from forming dendrites under use. According to Hu, “Combining the solid coating and new high-efficiency ionic liquid materials was the basis for SolidEnergy on the technology side.”
Will we see this technology come to market any time soon? I don’t know, but if it performs as advertised, we may. Battery capacity is the biggest single problem in many device designs; lithium-ion energy capacity has not nearly kept pace with device hunger. Removing the anode gives such a capacity boost, it could be a net positive even if the first commercial designs are below the predicted energy density.

There’s no word on how hard it is to build these structures, but they don’t appear to rely on expensive metals (another plus), and there’s nothing particularly expensive about sulfur or phosphorous. None of this proves we’ll be packing smartphones with 2x the battery life in a year or two, but there seem to be fewer barriers to commercial introduction for SolidEnergy than we’ve seen in the past.

Source

09 December 2017

Rippling Graphene Sheets May Be the Key to Clean, Unlimited Energy



Clean, Unlimited Energy

Physicists at the University of Arkansas have invented a nano-scale power generator that could potentially use the movement of graphene to produce clean, unlimited energy. Called a Vibration Energy Harvester, this development provides evidence for the theory that two-dimensional materials could be a source of usable energy.

Paul Thibado, a professor of physics at the university, got the idea for the generator after his team observed some strange, microscopic movements in sheets of graphene, which is made up of a single layer of carbon atoms. After laying out the sheets over a copper scaffold, the team was confused by the images they were collecting with a microscope.

Then they tried narrowed their focus and “separated each image into sub-images,” Thibado said in a Research Frontiers article. “Looking at large-scale averages hid the different patterns. Each region of a single image, when viewed over time, produced a more meaningful pattern.”

Once they started analyzing the sheets point-by-point, they made an amazing discovery — the graphene was essentially rippling, flipping up and down through a combination of small, random motions and larger, sudden movements known as Lévy flights. This was the first time such movement had been observed in an inorganic, atomic-scale system. The team determined that the movements were due to ambient heat at room temperature.

Because of graphene’s sheet-like nature, its atoms vibrated in tandem, which sets it apart from the random vibrations you would see in, say, molecules of a liquid. Thibado said to Research Frontiers, “This is the key to using the motion of 2D-materials as a source of harvestable energy.” The tandem vibrations cause ripples in the graphene sheet from which we can harness energy using the latest nanotechnology.

The researchers then designed a tiny generator to do just that. This device could have a drastic impact on our access to clean, unlimited energy. It could allow our tech to send, receive, process, or store information, powered solely by the heat available at room temperature. This clearly could have remarkable and widely varied applications.


Fantastical Technologies

Now, while Thibado has applied for a patent and is insistent on the potential of this device, it has yet to be proven effective. It has remarkable possibilities, but we will have to see how the prototype of the tiny electric generator turns out before we know whether it is a viable energy solution. But, if the claims of this team prove to be true, it could revolutionize not only how we create energy, but the devices that we are capable of creating.

One potential application is medical devices. Current medical implants often require batteries. And, while these batteries are long-lasting, a self-charging device that relies on microscopic graphene movement could allow devices to be both smaller and more effective in the long-run. Thibado remarked on this possibility to Research Frontiers, saying “Self-powering enables smart bio-implants, which would profoundly impact society.”

This could extend into a range of biomedical applications. Microscopic, self-powering capabilities could be remarkably helpful for hearing devices which often require frequent, expensive, bulky battery changes. Pace-makers and wearable sensors could also improve from such tech.

Graphene could also power non-medical wearable technologies. From “smart” graphene fashion to in-ear translators and wearable cryptocurrency, devices that blend with our organic shapes and movement are becoming increasingly popular and capable.

While this unique application of graphene is new and has yet to be fully proven, Thibado and his team will continue to explore the unique material’s potential as a clean, unlimited energy source. Such a power source would be game-changing, as it could immeasurably advance technologies that are becoming more compatible with our own human biology.

Source

Some high-temperature superconductors might not be so odd after all


Finding hidden swirls of electric current shows that the material’s behavior matches standard theory.
VORTEX FOUND  Newly observed swirls of electric current in a high-temperature superconductor (shown in an artist’s conception) may indicate that the unusual material fits within the standard theoretical picture.

A misfit gang of superconducting materials may be losing their outsider status.

Certain copper-based compounds superconduct, or transmit electricity without resistance, at unusually high temperatures. It was thought that the standard theory of superconductivity, known as Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, couldn’t explain these oddballs. But new evidence suggests that the standard theory applies despite the materials’ quirks, researchers report in the Dec. 8 Physical Review Letters.

All known superconductors must be chilled to work. Most must be cooled to temperatures that hover above absolute zero (–273.15° Celsius). But some copper-based superconductors work at temperatures above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (around –196° C). Finding a superconductor that functions at even higher temperatures above room temperature could provide massive energy savings and new technologies (SN: 12/26/15, p. 25). So scientists are intent upon understanding the physics behind known high-temperature superconductors.

When placed in a magnetic field, many superconductors display swirling vortices of electric current a hallmark of the standard superconductivity theory. But for the copper-based superconductors, known as cuprates, scientists couldn’t find whirls that matched the theory’s predictions, suggesting that a different theory was needed to explain how the materials superconduct. “This was one of the remaining mysteries,” says physicist Christoph Renner of the University of Geneva. Now, Renner and colleagues have found vortices that agree with the theory in a high-temperature copper-based superconductor, studying a compound of yttrium, barium, copper and oxygen.

Vortices in superconductors can be probed with a scanning tunneling microscope. As the microscope tip moves over a vortex, the instrument records a change in the electrical current. Renner and colleagues realized that, in their copper compound, there were two contributions to the current that the probe was measuring, one from superconducting electrons and one from nonsuperconducting ones. The nonsuperconducting contribution was present across the entire surface of the material and masked the signature of the vortices.

Subtracting the nonsuperconducting portion revealed the vortices, which behaved in agreement with the standard superconductivity theory. “That, I think, is quite astonishing; it's quite a feat,” says Mikael Fogelström of Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, who was not involved with the research.

The result lifts some of the fog surrounding cuprates, which have so far resisted theoretical explanation. But plenty of questions still surround the materials, Fogelström says. “It leaves many things still open, but it sort of gives a new picture.”

Source

04 December 2017

Diamond Batteries Made of Nuclear Waste Can Generate Power For Thousands of Years


IN BRIEF

  • Scientist have developed an ingenious means of converting nuclear power plant waste (76,430 metric tons in the US alone) into sustainable diamond batteries.
  • These long-lasting batteries could be a clean and safe way to power spacecraft, satellites, and even medical devices.


NUCLEAR DIAMONDS

Scientists from the University of Bristol Cabot Institute are hitting two birds with one stone, thanks to their lab-made diamond that can generate electricity and is made from upcycled radioactive waste.

In nuclear power plants, radioactive uranium is split in a process called nuclear fission. When the atoms are split, heat is generated, and that heat then vaporizes water into steam that turns electricity-generating turbines.

A severe downside of this process is the creation of dangerous radioactive waste, which ultimately deposits in the graphite core that it is housed in. Today, this nuclear contamination is safely stored away until it stops being radioactive…and with a half-life of 5,730 years, that takes quite a while.

The scientists found a way to heat the radioactive graphite to release most of the radioactivity in a gaseous form. The gas is subjected to high temperature and low pressures that turn it into a man-made diamond.


When these diamonds are placed near a radioactive field, they generate a small electrical current. The developers enclosed the diamond battery in another non-radioactive diamond to absorb the harmful emissions, which in turn allowed for the generation of even more electricity, making the battery nearly 100 percent efficient.


POWERING THE FUTURE

The nuclear diamond battery has an incredible lifetime, and will only be half used up by the year 7746. This makes it an ideal power solution for “situations where it is not feasible to charge or replace conventional batteries,” said Tom Scott, a materials science professor at Cabot Institute.

Flight times of planes, satellites, or spacecraft could increase with such a lasting battery. Medical devices like pacemakers and the artificial pancreas could become more reliable, empowering users to live their lives more fully.

The development also presents an incredibly efficient way to treat radioactive waste. Within the past 40 years, the US has amassed 76,430 metric tons (84,250 tons) of this waste.

Supplying the Earth with electricity is a daunting task even without a focus on sustainability. Now, it looks like experts are on the right track with this nuclear-powered diamond battery. It’s almost like the holy grail of electricity generation, or as Scott puts it, “no emissions generated and no maintenance required, just direct electricity generation.”

source

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